La intervenció educativa en l'alumnat amb dificultat de regulació del comportament. Anàlisi dels factors de risc i de protecció

Balart, Imma
Introduction: Children and adolescents diagnosed with Conduct Disorder present a repetitive and persistent pattern of disruptive behaviour with difficulties to accept and follow the social norms or rules appropriate to their age and of disrespect to the basic rights of others. The number of students with Behavioural Regulation Difficulties (BRD) in the classroom has been increasing significantly in recent years, causing real school and social problems. The general objective of the present thesis has been the need to study in depth the characteristics of these students and the educational intervention best suited to their needs. In order to achieve this, we have distinguished three specific objectives: a) To identify the protection and risk factors in a sample of students with BRD; b) To explore the perceptions and opinions of professionals working with students with BRD; c) To determine which educational actions are considered by teachers and specialized professionals to be a priority in the design and implementation in the classroom for students with BRD. Method: A descriptive study was carried out on a sample of N=100 students with BRD. The results obtained led to a second qualitative study using the Focus Group technique. By means of an intentional sampling, four different professional profiles were grouped together: primary, and secondary school teachers, psycho-pedagogical teams and specific educational services. Results: In the descriptive analysis of the sample, the first study shows the presence (62%) of unfavourable social and cultural situations in the environment of students with BRD. Specifically, the significant presence of risk indicators of possible maltreatment, situations of abuse and general lack of protection, indicators that are specified in the study together with the protective factors detected. Likewise, a high prevalence of male students with BRD (90%) is shown, a fact that needs to be further investigated in future research. Taking into account that, in 2018, in Catalonia, 6% of pupils were considered to be in need of educational support due to unfavourable social and cultural situations, it is significant that, in the sample of students with BRD in our study, this percentage rises to 62%. In this sample, there is a significant presence of risk indicators of possible maltreatment, situations of abuse and general lack of protection. In the second study, the results of the focus groups obtained categories that are grouped into three broad thematic blocks: teachers’ emotions, educational responses that create a protective environment and a climate of trust, and the need to create bonds with these children and youngsters and their families. The results obtained showed the presence in teachers of feelings of fear, insecurity, sadness, impotence, anxiety, loneliness, anger and rage, frustration and uncertainty. Faced with these negative feelings that could hinder and block the role of teachers, networking has been identified as a necessity to transform these emotions. The fact of being listened to by colleagues, management teams and educational psychologists is perceived as the possibility of transforming these negative emotions into feelings that emerge from joy, optimism and hope. Conclusions: The results of this first study show the presence of a large number of risk conditions that accumulate in children with emotional and behavioural regulation difficulties. These identified risk conditions could be disseminated in schools to encourage early detection and preventive action. In relation to the perceptions and opinions of the professionals who attend to BRD students, there is a consensus regarding the fact that any possibility of success with these children revolves around the teacher's ability to create a relationship of affection and trust with the students and their families. The construction of this affective and trust matrix between the teacher and the student with BRD requires teaching skills that are valued by the participants in our study and which are detailed in the thesis ​
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