State of the Art of Underwater Active Optical 3D Scanners

Underwater inspection, maintenance and repair (IMR) operations are being increasingly robotized in order to reduce safety issues and costs. These robotic systems rely on vision sensors to perform fundamental tasks, such as navigation and object recognition and manipulation. Especially, active optical 3D scanners are commonly used due to the domain-specific challenges of underwater imaging. This paper presents an exhaustive survey on the state of the art of optical 3D underwater scanners. A literature review on light projection and light-sensing technologies is presented. Moreover, quantitative performance comparisons of underwater 3D scanners present in the literature and commercial products are carried out ​
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