Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and Game Technologies in Ophthalmology Training

Ophthalmology is a medical profession with a tradition in teaching that has developed throughout history. Although ophthalmologists are generally considered to only prescribe contact lenses, and they handle more than half of eye-related enhancements, diagnoses, and treatments. The training of qualified ophthalmologists is generally carried out under the traditional settings, where there is a supervisor and a student, and training is based on the use of animal eyes or artificial eye models. These models have significant disadvantages, as they are not immersive and are extremely expensive and difficult to acquire. Therefore, technologies related to Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) are rapidly and prominently positioning themselves in the medical sector, and the field of ophthalmology is growing exponentially both in terms of the training of professionals and in the assistance and recovery of patients. At the same time, it is necessary to highlight and analyze the developments that have made use of game technologies for the teaching of ophthalmology and the results that have been obtained. This systematic review aims to investigate software and hardware applications developed exclusively for educational environments related to ophthalmology and provide an analysis of other related tools. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages, limitations, and challenges involved in the use of virtual reality, augmented reality, and game technologies in this field are also presented ​
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