3D Object Recognition Based on Point Clouds in Underwater Environment with Global Descriptors: A Survey

This paper addresses the problem of object recognition from colorless 3D point clouds in underwater environments. It presents a performance comparison of state-of-the-art global descriptors, which are readily available as open source code. The studied methods are intended to assist Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) in performing autonomous interventions in underwater Inspection, Maintenance and Repair (IMR) applications. A set of test objects were chosen as being representative of IMR applications whose shape is typically known a priori. As such, CAD models were used to create virtual views of the objects under realistic conditions of added noise and varying resolution. Extensive experiments were conducted from both virtual scans and from real data collected with an AUV equipped with a fast laser sensor developed in our research centre. The underwater testing was conducted from a moving platform, which can create deformations in the perceived shape of the objects. These effects are considerably more difficult to correct than in above-water counterparts, and therefore may affect the performance of the descriptor. Among other conclusions, the testing we conducted illustrated the importance of matching the resolution of the database scans and test scans, as this significantly impacted the performance of all descriptors except one. This paper contributes to the state-of-the-art as being the first work on the comparison and performance evaluation of methods for underwater object recognition. It is also the first effort using comparison of methods for data acquired with a free floating underwater platform ​
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