Finite field treatment of vibrational polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities: on the role of the Eckart conditions, their implementation, and their use in characterizing key vibrations

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In the finite field (FF) treatment of vibrational polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities, the field-free Eckart conditions must be enforced in order to prevent molecular reorientation during geometry optimization. These conditions are implemented for the first time. Our procedure facilities identification of field-induced internal coordinates that make the major contribution to the vibrational properties. Using only two of these coordinates, quantitative accuracy for nuclear relaxation polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities is achieved in π-conjugated systems. From these two coordinates a single most efficient natural conjugation coordinate (NCC) can be extracted. The limitations of this one coordinate approach are discussed. It is shown that the Eckart conditions can lead to an isotope effect that is comparable to the isotope effect on zero-point vibrational averaging, but with a different mass-dependence ​
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