Aplicación de la técnica GPC al análisis de polímeros de interés industrial

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Polymers are one of the most used compounds in the chemical industry because they have application in a wide variety of products for daily use. Polymer preparation and its analysis is a very active field of research in universities and research centers in chemistry and chemical engineering around the world. There are many possible fields of research around the chemistry of polymers, including their chemical characterization, molecular weight analysis (PM) and molecular weight dispersion (DPM). These parameters also modify the physicochemical properties of the polymer. Unlike the low molecular weight molecules in which all have the same weight, and so the weight is unique and exact, in the case of polymers the molecular weight of the polymer results from the molecular weight means of the discrete molecules that compose it. Many physicochemical properties such as resistance to degradation, flexibility of a plastic, compatibility between different plastic materials of different chemical nature, behavior against temperature, among others, they are directly related not only to chemical nature of the polymer, but also with its molecular weight and the molecular weight dispersion of discrete molecules that compose the polymer. Therefore, not only the chemical nature but also the determination of molecular weight and the dispersion of weights are necessary to characterize the polymer and to understand its properties. The present study is based on the development of methodologies using GPC for the analysis of the PM and the DPM of different polymers used in the company Concentrol, as well as other polymers that are currently synthesized or that can be synthesized in the future, to contribute an improvement in the quality of analysis of products manufactured in Concentrol thus giving a higher level of quality in their products, allowing for the company be more competitive in the market. On the other hand, a family of these polymers that Concentrol uses and manufactures are silicone stabilizers for polyurethane foam, surfactants. This thesis includes the synthesis and characterization of a wide set of polymers for the production of surfactants including themselves, and the subsequent evaluation of these in different polyurethane systems, in order to find the relationship between molecular weight and surfactant structure with the final properties of the foams with the aim of designing new surfactants that are better or providing new properties to the polyurethane foams. The synthesis chemistry of surfactants in the industry is currently based on platinum catalysts. In this doctoral thesis the synthesis of catalysts based in non-precious metals for the synthesis of surfactants has been investigated, in order to replace the current platinum ones ​
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