Percepción del dolor en pacientes postoperados de cirugía cardiaca

Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience, associated with tissue damage, that is a reality linked to the surgical procedure and the postoperative period. Objective: Knowing the degree of pain experienced by patients after cardiac surgery, depending on the type of intervention they underwent, over the post-operative period in an intensive care unit (ICU). Method: Descriptive observational study. Pain was assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS), going from 0 to 10, thereby obtaining the first VAS1 assessment at 2 h post-extubation and every 8 hours thereafter up to 48 hours or until discharge to floor VAS7. It included patients having undergone cardiac surgery [valve surgery, bypass, combined procedure (including valve surgery and bypass) and mediastinitis]. Data were processed using Spss.v 20. Results: 120 patients 70 years old on average (standard deviation (SD): 13.3 years old) were included, out of which 70% were male. 40.8% of them had underwent bypass coronary revascularization. Patients subjected to the bypass technique showed an VAS1 mean value of 4.35 (SD: 2.45), unlike those subjected to valve surgery, who showed a mean value of 2.89 (SD: 2.27), those subjected to the combined procedure, who showed a mean value of 3.87 (SD: 2.90), and those with mediastinitis, who showed a mean value of 3.33 (SD: 3.51); (p < 0.031). 28.5% of patients had underwent revascularization (n = 49 ) by an internal mam mary artery (IMA) graft. These patients showed a mean value for VAS1 of 5.4 (SD: 1.89), unlike those who had underwent a combined procedure [IMA and saphenous vein (SV)], who showed a mean value of 3.9 (SD: 2.6), and those who had underwent a SV procedure , who showed a mean value of 3.5 (SD: 2.1); (p < 0.045). Conclusions: Patients having underwent bypass and IMA procedures perceive more pain than in other cardiac surgery and graft interventions ​
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