Histology of Organogenic and Embryogenic Responses in Cotyledons of Somatic Embryos of Quercus Suber L.

In cork oak (Quercus suber L.), recurrent embryogenesis is produced in vitro through autoembryony without exogenous plant growth regulators (PGRs); secondary embryos appear on the embryo axis but seldom on cotyledons. Focusing mainly on the histological origin of neoformations, we investigated the influence of the embryo axis and exogenous PGRs on the embryogenic potential of somatic embryo cotyledons. Isolated cotyledons of somatic embryos became necrotic when cultured on PGR-free medium but gave secondary embryos when cultured on media containing benzyladenine and naphthaleneacetic acid. Cotyledons of cork oak somatic embryos are competent to give embryogenic responses. Isolated cotyledons without a petiole showed a lower percentage of embryogenic response than did those with a petiole. In petioles, somatic embryos arose from inner parenchyma tissues following a multicellular budding pattern. Joined to the embryo axis, cotyledons did not show morphogenic responses when cultured on PGR-free medium but revealed budlike and phylloid formations when cultured on medium with PGRs. The different morphogenic behavior displayed by somatic cotyledons indicates an influence of the embryo axis and indicates a relationship between organogenic and embryogenic regeneration pathways ​
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