Ecological and biological strategies taken by the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868), in cold seasons. Effects of winter nests management in natural invaded areas

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The winter nesting behaviour of the Argentine ant seems to be intrinsic, and its success as an invasive species does not rely on a shift in social organization, nor on a shift in its mode of nesting associated with the introduction to new habitats. Differences in energy investment in queens seem to respond to the different ecological contexts between studied zones. Therefore, L. humile could be experiencing a change in their biological strategies to become an invasive species. Regarding the management of the invasion by means of manual removal of nests, we suggest to do it in winter, at the front, and yearly. Finally, P. pygmaea seems to be affected by L. humile in the front, and to be benefitting in the centre, because L. humile reduces the competitive pressure on it by retracting other native species in the centre, and also because the existence of a certain degree of habituation between these two species ​
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