An approach to coded structured light to obtain three dimensional information

The human visual ability to perceive depth looks like a puzzle. We perceive three-dimensional spatial information quickly and efficiently by using the binocular stereopsis of our eyes and, what is mote important the learning of the most common objects which we achieved through living. Nowadays, modelling the behaviour of our brain is a fiction, that is why the huge problem of 3D perception and further, interpretation is split into a sequence of easier problems. A lot of research is involved in robot vision in order to obtain 3D information of the surrounded scene. Most of this research is based on modelling the stereopsis of humans by using two cameras as if they were two eyes. This method is known as stereo vision and has been widely studied in the past and is being studied at present, and a lot of work will be surely done in the future. This fact allows us to affirm that this topic is one of the most interesting ones in computer vision. The stereo vision principle is based on obtaining the three dimensional position of an object point from the position of its projective points in both camera image planes. However, before inferring 3D information, the mathematical models of both cameras have to be known. This step is known as camera calibration and is broadly describes in the thesis. Perhaps the most important problem in stereo vision is the determination of the pair of homologue points in the two images, known as the correspondence problem, and it is also one of the most difficult problems to be solved which is currently investigated by a lot of researchers. The epipolar geometry allows us to reduce the correspondence problem. An approach to the epipolar geometry is describes in the thesis. Nevertheless, it does not solve it at all as a lot of considerations have to be taken into account. As an example we have to consider points without correspondence due to a surface occlusion or simply due to a projection out of the camera scope. The interest of the thesis is focused on structured light which has been considered as one of the most frequently used techniques in order to reduce the problems related lo stereo vision. Structured light is based on the relationship between a projected light pattern its projection and an image sensor. The deformations between the pattern projected into the scene and the one captured by the camera, permits to obtain three dimensional information of the illuminated scene. This technique has been widely used in such applications as: 3D object reconstruction, robot navigation, quality control, and so on. Although the projection of regular patterns solve the problem of points without match, it does not solve the problem of multiple matching, which leads us to use hard computing algorithms in order to search the correct matches. In recent years, another structured light technique has increased in importance. This technique is based on the codification of the light projected on the scene in order to be used as a tool to obtain an unique match. Each token of light is imaged by the camera, we have to read the label (decode the pattern) in order to solve the correspondence problem. The advantages and disadvantages of stereo vision against structured light and a survey on coded structured light are related and discussed. The work carried out in the frame of this thesis has permitted to present a new coded structured light pattern which solves the correspondence problem uniquely and robust. Unique, as each token of light is coded by a different word which removes the problem of multiple matching. Robust, since the pattern has been coded using the position of each token of light with respect to both co-ordinate axis. Algorithms and experimental results are included in the thesis. The reader can see examples 3D measurement of static objects, and the more complicated measurement of moving objects. The technique can be used in both cases as the pattern is coded by a single projection shot. Then it can be used in several applications of robot vision. Our interest is focused on the mathematical study of the camera and pattern projector models. We are also interested in how these models can be obtained by calibration, and how they can be used to obtained three dimensional information from two correspondence points. Furthermore, we have studied structured light and coded structured light, and we have presented a new coded structured light pattern. However, in this thesis we started from the assumption that the correspondence points could be well-segmented from the captured image. Computer vision constitutes a huge problem and a lot of work is being done at all levels of human vision modelling, starting from a)image acquisition; b) further image enhancement, filtering and processing, c) image segmentation which involves thresholding, thinning, contour detection, texture and colour analysis, and so on. The interest of this thesis starts in the next step, usually known as depth perception or 3D measurement. ​
​ADVERTIMENT. L'accés als continguts d'aquesta tesi doctoral i la seva utilització ha de respectar els drets de la persona autora. Pot ser utilitzada per a consulta o estudi personal, així com en activitats o materials d'investigació i docència en els termes establerts a l'art. 32 del Text Refós de la Llei de Propietat Intel·lectual (RDL 1/1996). Per altres utilitzacions es requereix l'autorització prèvia i expressa de la persona autora. En qualsevol cas, en la utilització dels seus continguts caldrà indicar de forma clara el nom i cognoms de la persona autora i el títol de la tesi doctoral. No s'autoritza la seva reproducció o altres formes d'explotació efectuades amb finalitats de lucre ni la seva comunicació pública des d'un lloc aliè al servei TDX. Tampoc s'autoritza la presentació del seu contingut en una finestra o marc aliè a TDX (framing). Aquesta reserva de drets afecta tant als continguts de la tesi com als seus resums i índexs.