Density functional energy decomposition into one- and two-atom contributions

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The present work provides a generalization of Mayer's energy decomposition for the density-functional theory (DFT) case. It is shown that one- and two-atom Hartree-Fock energy components in Mayer's approach can be represented as an action of a one-atom potential VA on a one-atom density ρ A or ρ B. To treat the exchange-correlation term in the DFT energy expression in a similar way, the exchange-correlation energy density per electron is expanded into a linear combination of basis functions. Calculations carried out for a number of density functionals demonstrate that the DFT and Hartree-Fock two-atom energies agree to a reasonable extent with each other. The two-atom energies for strong covalent bonds are within the range of typical bond dissociation energies and are therefore a convenient computational tool for assessment of individual bond strength in polyatomic molecules. For nonspecific nonbonding interactions, the two-atom energies are low. They can be either repulsive or slightly attractive, but the DFT results more frequently yield small attractive values compared to the Hartree-Fock case. The hydrogen bond in the water dimer is calculated to be between the strong covalent and nonbonding interactions on the energy scale ​
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