Two complementary molecular energy decomposition schemes: the Mayer and Ziegler-Rauk methods in comparison

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In the present paper we discuss and compare two different energy decomposition schemes: Mayer's Hartree-Fock energy decomposition into diatomic and monoatomic contributions [Chem. Phys. Lett. 382, 265 (2003)], and the Ziegler-Rauk dissociation energy decomposition [Inorg. Chem. 18, 1558 (1979)]. The Ziegler-Rauk scheme is based on a separation of a molecule into fragments, while Mayer's scheme can be used in the cases where a fragmentation of the system in clearly separable parts is not possible. In the Mayer scheme, the density of a free atom is deformed to give the one-atom Mulliken density that subsequently interacts to give rise to the diatomic interaction energy. We give a detailed analysis of the diatomic energy contributions in the Mayer scheme and a close look onto the one-atom Mulliken densities. The Mulliken density ρA has a single large maximum around the nuclear position of the atom A, but exhibits slightly negative values in the vicinity of neighboring atoms. The main connecting point between both analysis schemes is the electrostatic energy. Both decomposition schemes utilize the same electrostatic energy expression, but differ in how fragment densities are defined. In the Mayer scheme, the electrostatic component originates from the interaction of the Mulliken densities, while in the Ziegler-Rauk scheme, the undisturbed fragment densities interact. The values of the electrostatic energy resulting from the two schemes differ significantly but typically have the same order of magnitude. Both methods are useful and complementary since Mayer's decomposition focuses on the energy of the finally formed molecule, whereas the Ziegler-Rauk scheme describes the bond formation starting from undeformed fragment densities ​
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