Congenital LMNA-Related Muscular Dystrophy in Paediatrics: Cardiac Management in Monozygotic Twins

Pathogenic variants in LMNA have been associated with a wide spectrum of muscular conditions: the laminopathies. LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy is a laminopathy characterised by the early onset of symptoms and often leads to a fatal outcome at young ages. Children face a heightened risk of malignant arrhythmias. No established paediatric protocols for managing this condition are available. We review published cases and provide insights into disease progression in two twin sisters with LMNA-related muscular dystrophy. Our objective is to propose a cardiac surveillance and management plan tailored specifically for paediatric patients. We present a family of five members, including two twin sisters with LMNA-related muscular dystrophy. A comprehensive neuromuscular and cardiac work-up was performed in all family members. Genetic analysis using massive sequencing technology was performed in both twins. Clinical assessment showed that only the twins showed diagnoses of LMNA-related muscular dystrophy. Follow-up showed an early onset of symptoms and life-threatening arrhythmias, with differing disease progressions despite both twins passing away. Genetic analysis identified a de novo rare missense deleterious variant in the LMNA gene. Other additional rare variants were identified in genes associated with myasthenic syndrome. Early-onset neuromuscular symptoms could be related to a prognosis of worse life-threatening arrhythmias in LMNA related muscular dystrophy. Being a carrier of other rare variants may be a modifying factor in the progression of the phenotype, although further studies are needed. There is a pressing need for specific cardiac recommendations tailored to the paediatric population to mitigate the risk of malignant arrhythmias ​
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