Distinctive effects of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide on methane production kinetics and pharmaceuticals removal in anaerobic reactors

Casabella-Font, Oriol
Riva, Massimiliano
Balcázar, José Luis
Radjenovic, Jelena
Pijuan i Vilalta, Maite
Graphene oxide (GO) addition to anaerobic digestion has been suggested to enhance direct electron transfer. The impact of GO (0.075 g GO g−1 VS) and biologically and hydrothermally reduced GO (bio-rGO and h-rGO, respectively) on the methane production kinetics and removal of 12 pharmaceuticals was assessed in Fed-batch reactors. A decrease of 15 % in methane production was observed in the tests with GO addition compared with the control and the h-rGO. However, bio-rGO and h-rGO substantially increased the methane production rate compared to the control tests (+40 %), in the third fed-batch test. Removal of pharmaceuticals was enhanced only during the bio-reduction of GO (1st fed-batch test), whereas once the GO was bio-reduced, it followed a similar trend in the control and h-rGO tests. The addition of GO can enhance the methane production rate and, therefore, reduce the anaerobic treatment time ​
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