Effectiveness of the flipped classroom methodology in higher education. A systematic review

The flipped classroom (FC) is a methodological approach that reverses the traditional way of teaching by putting the active focus on the student. It is a dynamic methodology in which the teacher facilitates the students' learning by providing adequate material for the prior preparation of the classes and accompanying them in the deepening of the contents and the resolution of situations or problems related to the subject of study within the classroom. For this reason, it is considered an innovative teaching methodology. The general objective of this paper is to analyse the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of FC at the university level. Following the PRISMA recommendations, a systematic review of the literature published in the Web of Science, Scopus and ERIC databases between 2016 and 2022 was carried out, analysing a total of 27 experimental or quasi-experimental studies that met the defined selection criteria. Descriptive and design variables were analysed, as well as the assessment of effectiveness, the opinion of the students and the conditioning factors that affect the effectiveness of the FC. The results show a higher number of publications in the Asian and American continents and in the fields of science and education. 87% of the articles study the undergraduate level and more than 81% use a control group in their study design. The evidence shows the effectiveness of the application of FC with regard to the academic results of students in the different grades, as well as in the acquisition of skills considered transversal in the university environment. Student satisfaction with the methodology is good and improvements in its effectiveness are related to aspects that depend on the students themselves, the teachers and the university. ​
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