Inbound open innovation in SMEs: indicators, non-financial outcomes and entry-timing

This study contributes to the literature on inbound open innovation in three ways. Firstly, it verifies the suitability of three groups of innovation activities (external information sources, cooperation and acquisition of machinery, knowledge or R&D) as indicators of open innovation, by modelling their relationship with the openness of the development of new products. Secondly, it relates these activities to three non-financial product-oriented outcomes of small and medium enterprises (SMEs): quality, product range and market share. When significant, the signs of the relationships are always positive. Thirdly, it is the first to link two streams of the literature on innovation within SMEs: open innovation and entry-timing. We distinguish between pioneers (the first to introduce innovations onto the market) and followers and find that most open innovation activities relate to the pioneering behaviour. This should be taken into consideration when designing public policies supporting innovation. Data include Spanish innovative SMEs from the Community Innovation Survey ​
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