Saddle-node bifurcation of limit cycles in an epidemic model with two levels of awareness

In this paper we study the appearance of bifurcations of limit cycles in an epidemic model with two types of aware individuals. All the transition rates are constant except for the alerting decay rate of the most aware individuals and the rate of creation of the less aware individuals, which depend on the disease prevalence in a non-linear way. For the ODE model, the numerical computation of the limit cycles and the study of their stability are made by means of the Poincaré map. Moreover, sufficient conditions for the existence of an endemic equilibrium are also obtained. These conditions involve a rather natural relationship between the transmissibility of the disease and that of awareness. Finally, stochastic simulations of the model under a very low rate of imported cases are used to confirm the scenarios of bistability (endemic equilibrium and limit cycle) observed in the solutions of the ODE model ​
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