All-d-metal Heusler alloys: a review

Heusler alloy research has increased considerably in recent years. This is mostly due to their strong desire to develop future smart device applications. However, many limiting variables remain for researchers to overcome in order to enhance their functional properties. The poor mechanical properties of these alloys restrict their use as solid-state cooling materials in magnetic refrigeration devices. A promising strategy, resulting in novel compounds with better mechanical properties and substantial magnetocaloric effects, is favoring the d-d hybridization with transition-metal elements to replace p-d hybridization. The term given to these materials is "all-d-metal". In light of recent experimental results of the magnetocaloric effect and the increased mechanical characteristics in these alloys (with complex crystallographic behavior due to off-stoichiometry and disorder), a review of this advanced functional behavior is offered. Moreover, the impact of the substitution of transition metal for the p-group to increase mechanical ductility and considerable magnetocaloric effects has also been addressed. These Heusler alloys are a potential new class of materials for technological applications because of their optimum functional behavior. Finally, we highlighted the potential challenges and unsolved issues in order to guide future studies on this topic ​
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