Revisió bibliogràfica sobre el cultiu de l’alga nori. Importància, història i mètodes de cultiu

Nori is the Japanese term for several species of edible red algae of the order foliose Bangiales. Until now the established genus was Porphyra, but recently a phylogenetic revision has been carried out in which most species have been transferred to genera such as Pyropia and Neopyropia. The main nori producing countries are China, Japan and Korea and the main purpose is the production of dried sheets for foods such as "sushi" consumed worldwide. The discovery of the sporophytic phase (conchocelis) by Kathleen Drew marked the beginning of mass production of nori in 1960 in Japan, since with this knowledge it was possible to control the life cycle of the species. It was the beginning of modern aquaculture with a great economic and social impact worldwide. It required a series of key steps: artificial cultivation of conchocelis in greenhouses, harvesting of zygotospores, seeding them in nets, cultivation of foliose thallus in the sea, harvesting and finally processing. Systems for freezing nets were also created and genetic selection processes of strains were carried out to improve crop efficiency. In addition, research is currently being carried out on cultivation in terrestrial tanks and on the production of blades via asexual reproduction through archeospores. The objective of this project has been describing from a historical point of view the different cultivation systems of nori from centuries ago to the present day. The different parameters to be controlled in the cultivation of conchocelis and blades have been analyzed. In addition, the advantages and drawbacks of the different techniques against different factors have been discussed. Nowadays, the most widely used method of cultivation of blades is the semi-floating method and the most cultivated species are N. yezoensis and N. haitanensis. From all the bibliographic compilation, a protocol for a pilot culture test of Neothemis ballesterosii in the Mediterranean has been elaborated, concluding that the most efficient method for the future is the culture in terrestrial tanks via archeospores ​
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