Anàlisi de la viabilitat de diferents biopolímers com a alternatives als plàstics convencionals

Torres Puigvert, Laia
Polymers are now of great importance to the global economy, and this is reflected in their high levels of production. Most plastics produced are not biodegradable, come from nonrenewable resources and are not recycled. Therefore, the accumulation of plastic waste is becoming a real problem for the environment and for humans. The importance of this fact has aroused great interest in finding alternatives, the most important is the use of bioplastics. This term encompasses a whole set of polymers that are biodegradable, come from natural resources or both characteristics at the same time. The aim of this bibliographic study is seeing if these polymers are a viable alternative to conventional plastics and if so, which ones are more likely to stand out from the others. The different types to be considered have been distributed in four different groups, according to their origin and according to their biodegradability, and in each case their advantages, disadvantages, applications, market price and their biodegradable microorganisms have been examined. Through comparisons of costs, advantages, disadvantages, and applications, it can be seen that in the economic field there is no plastic more cost-effective than any conventional polymer. Therefore, more studies are needed to lower production costs. On the other hand, there are very few plastics that solve the problem of biodegradability at the same time as the origin of raw materials. However, in order for those with both characteristics to acquire properties similar to those of type IV polymers, and also not to have excessively high prices, in many cases it would be necessary to mix them with other materials. Although there is currently no biopolymer that can replace conventional plastics in its entirety and effectively, in the near future and by conducting relevant research there are plastics, such as PLA or PHB, with a lot of potential to do it ​
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