Changes in lifestyle resulting from confinement due to COVID-19 and depressive symptomatology: A cross-sectional a population-based study

Background The measures adopted to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in several countries included mobility and social restrictions that produced an immediate impact on the lifestyle of their inhabitants. Methods We assessed the association between the consequences of these measures and depressive symptomatology using a population-based sample of 692 individuals aged 18 or over from an ongoing study in the province of Girona (Catalonia, Spain). Participants responded to a telephone-based survey that included questions related to the consequences of confinement and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to assess depressive symptomatology. Multivariate logistic and linear regressions were used to identify which changes in lifestyle resulting from confinement were independently associated with a possible depression episode and depressive symptomatology. Results The prevalence of a possible depressive episode during the confinement was 12.7% (95% CI = 10.3–15.4). An adverse work situation, expected economic distress, self-reported worsening of the mental health and of the dietary pattern, and worries about a relative's potential infection were variables related to an increased risk of having a possible depressive episode. The changes in lifestyle accounted for 32% of the variance of the PHQ-9 score. Conclusion The findings indicate an association of the job situation, the expected negative economic consequences, the perceived worsening of health and habits, and the worries about COVID-19 infection with depressive symptomatology during the confinement ​
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