Dietary Inflammatory Index, Dietary Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity, and Colorectal and Breast Cancer Risk (MCC-Spain Study)

Obón Santacana, Mireia
Romaguera, Dora
Gracia Lavedan, Esther
Molinuevo, Amaia
Molina Montes, Esther
Shivappa, Nitin
Hébert, James R.
García Tardón, Adonina
Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma
Moratalla, Ferran
Guinó, Elisabet
Azpiri, Mikel
Gil, Leire
Olmedo Requena, Rocío
Lozano-Lorca, Macarena
Alguacil, Juan
Fernández-Villa, Tania
Martín, Vicente
Ederra, María
Moreno Iribas, Conchi
Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz
Aragonés, Nuria
Castelló, Adela
Huerta, José María
Dierssen Sotos, Trinidad
Gómez Acebo, Inés
Molina Barceló, Ana
Pollán, Marina
Kogevinas, Manolis
Moreno, Victor
Amiano, Pilar
Inflammation and antioxidant capacity have been associated with colorectal and breast cancer. We computed the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), and the total dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and associated them with colorectal and breast cancer risk in the population-based multi case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain). We included 1852 colorectal cancer and 1567 breast cancer cases, and 3447 and 1486 population controls, respectively. DII score and NEAC were derived using data from a semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for energy-adjusted DII (E-DII), and a score combining E-DII and NEAC. E-DII was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.93, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:1.60–2.32; p-trend: <0.001); this increase was observed for both colon and rectal cancer. Less pronounced increased risks were observed for breast cancer (OR = 1.22, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:0.99–1.52, p-trend: >0.10). The combined score of high E-DII scores and low antioxidant values were associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.48, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI: 1.26–1.74; p-trend: <0.001), but not breast cancer. This study provides evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk while findings for breast cancer were less consistent ​
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