Complex multiple risk intervention to promote healthy behaviours in people between 45 to 75 years attended in primary health care (EIRA study): study protocol for a hybrid trial

Zabaleta-del-Olmo, Edurne
Pombo, Haizea
Casajuana Closas, Marc
Pujol Ribera, Enriqueta
López-Jiménez, Tomás
Cabezas-Peña, Carmen
Martín-Borràs, Carme
Serrano-Blanco, Antoni
Rubio-Valera, Maria
Llobera, Joan
Leiva, Alfonso
Vicens, Caterina
Vidal, Clara
Campiñez, Manuel
Martín-Álvarez, Remedios
Maderuelo, José-Ángel
Recio Rodriguez, Jose I.
García-Ortiz, Luis
Motrico, Emma
Bellón, Juan-Ángel
Moreno-Peral, Patricia
Martín-Cantera, Carlos
Clavería, Ana
Aldecoa-Landesa, Susana
Magallón-Botaya, Rosa
Bolíbar, Bonaventura
Health promotion is a key process of current health systems. Primary Health Care (PHC) is the ideal setting for health promotion but multifaceted barriers make its integration difficult in the usual care. The majority of the adult population engages two or more risk behaviours, that is why a multiple intervention might be more effective and efficient. The primary objectives are to evaluate the effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness and an implementation strategy of a complex multiple risk intervention to promote healthy behaviours in people between 45 to 75 years attended in PHC. Methods This study is a cluster randomised controlled hybrid type 2 trial with two parallel groups comparing a complex multiple risk behaviour intervention with usual care. It will be carried out in 26 PHC centres in Spain. The study focuses on people between 45 and 75 years who carry out two or more of the following unhealthy behaviours: tobacco use, low adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern or insufficient physical activity level. The intervention is based on the Transtheoretical Model and it will be made by physicians and nurses in the routine care of PHC practices according to the conceptual framework of the “5A’s”. It will have a maximum duration of 12 months and it will be carried out to three different levels (individual, group and community). Incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained measured by the tariffs of the EuroQol-5D questionnaire will be estimated. The implementation strategy is based on the “Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research”, a set of discrete implementation strategies and an evaluation framework. Discussion EIRA study will determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a complex multiple risk intervention and will provide a better understanding of implementation processes of health promotion interventions in PHC setting. It may contribute to increase knowledge about the individual and structural barriers that affect implementation of these interventions and to quantify the contextual factors that moderate the effectiveness of implementation ​
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