Biodiversitat de pol·linitzadors en tres finques de producció integrada i una de producció ecològica a les comarques de l’Empordà

Llorente Carreras, Martí
The concern generated by the decline that is occurring in pollinator ecosystems due to intensive agricultural practices, the context of existing environmental crisis and the demands of consumers, promoted that new management techniques more respectful of the environment have emerged. Until the end of the last century, traditional agriculture based on the exclusive use of agrochemicals, had a predominant role in agricultural management. Subsequently, with the development of new more selective agrochemicals and methods of pest control such as mating disruption, the Integrated Production was developed; it is an agricultural production system that uses practices compatible with the improvement and protection of the environment, natural resources, genetic diversity and soil and landscape conservation. Organic Production is a production system based on the use of natural products for the control of pests and diseases. In the fruit growing areas of Girona province, last 15 years a great effort has been made to bring the Integrated Production to the highest possible level. The Ecological Production of apple crop has a recent development and the acreage is increasing bit by bit. This study presents the biodiversity of insects that play a prominent role in pollination in the two types of management. To carry out the study, two sampling methodologies were used, the PAN-TRAPS of ultraviolet colours: white, blue and yellow and the NEST-TRAPS. Samplings with the PAN-TRAPS were carried out in 2017 at the time of boom of the apple trees, in April, and a month later (May) to check if the composition of the pollinators was the same in three Integrated Production plots I, II, III and one Organic Production plot IV. The four plots have a composition of similar vegetation, a nearby water resource and are located in the fruit regions of Alt and Baix Empordà. The results present an inventory of pollinators captured through the PAN-TRAPS where the main exponents are part of the families: Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Himenoptera and Diptera. The plot that presents a greater richness and abundance has been the one of Organic Production (plot IV). However, the genus composition in April has been similar in plots I, II and IV, but plot III presented differences, in the genus composition. In the sampling carried out in May, plot III has been the one that presented differences in the composition of pollinators with respect to the others. The three ultraviolet colours used in the PAN-TRAPS did not show significant differences regarding insect families or pollinator genus. The individuals captured in the NEST-TRAPS, were only able to complete their development those of the traps coming from two of the four plots sampled. They belong to two genera of Himenoptera: Osmia and Anthidium. The results obtained were analysed according to the management of each crop ​
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