Anàlisi de la viabilitat d’un model d’autosuficiència energètica per a un habitatge

Villalonga Massutí, Pau
The current model of energy consumption (unsustainable and dependent on fossil fuels) entails important economic, social, political and environmental consequences. Increasing the energy efficiency of our homes is part of the transition to a more sustainable model, which allows us to cope with the important changes that we will face in the coming years, because of the decreasing availability of fossil energy materials, the general exhaustion of natural resources and the alteration of the climate. To achieve this, it is not enough to resort to renewable energy sources, we need a change in habits that will allow us to reduce and reorient our energy consumption. This project wants to demonstrate the viability of a self-sufficient energy model applied to a real case: a 191 m2 house located in Selva (Mallorca) where two people live. The electrical consumption of the house has been monitored during months and an estimate has been made about the consumption of the electrical household appliances. This has allowed to characterize the consumption of the house and to make predictions for the rest of the months of the year. A series of measures aimed at reducing the demand and energy consumption of the building have also been proposed. Likewise, the following systems have been designed, adjusted to the demand of the house and to the climatic conditions of the zone, to take advantage of some renewable energy sources: - A solar thermal installation to heat the sanitary water of the house. - A photovoltaic installation to produce electricity considering 3 alternatives (an instant self-consumption photovoltaic installation, a self-consumption photovoltaic installation with accumulation and an isolated photovoltaic installation). - A wind installation to produce electricity and complement the photovoltaic installation. Finally, a study has been made about profitability and sustainability. This has allowed the comparation of the proposed alternatives and the expediency of their application both economically and environmentally ​
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