Green Synthesis of Ag Nanoparticles Using Grape Stalk Waste Extract for the Modification of Screen-Printed Electrodes

The chemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by using an environmentally friendly methodology for their preparation is presented. Thus, considering that plants possess components that can act as reducing agents and stabilizers in nanoparticles’ production, the synthesis of Ag-NPs by using an extract aqueous solution of grape stalk waste as a reducing and capping agent is studied. First, the total polyphenols and reducing sugars contained in the produced extracts at different conditions are characterized. After that, Ag-NPs are synthesized regarding the interaction of Ag ions (from silver nitrate) and the grape stalk extract. The effect of temperature, contact time, extract/metal solution volume ratio and pH solution in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles are also studied. Different sets of nanoparticle samples are characterized by means of Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray for qualitative chemical identification. Ag-NPs with an average diameter of 27.7 ± 0.6 nm are selected to proof their suitability for sensing purposes. Finally, screen-printed electrodes modified with Ag-NPs are tested for the simultaneous stripping voltammetric determination of Pb(II) and Cd(II). Results indicate good reproducibility, sensitivity and limits of detection around 2.7 µg L−1 for both metal ions ​
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