La dieta com a prevenció primària pel desenvolupament del càncer colorectal: revisió bibliogràfica

Soler Renart, Anna
Introduction: The incidence of colorectal cancer is higher and increases every year in the developed countries. It is the abundantest malignant tumor if men and women are counted together. Dietary factors are highly relevant to the evolution of this type of cancer and have the capacity to influence the risk of developing neoplasia. Objectives: To know the influence of the diet on the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Also, if we can prevent its appearance through diet and identify which diet or eating pattern is the best suited to reduce the risk of developing this type of cancer. Methods: A bibliographic review was done of the last 5 years and it has been carried out in the Medline PubMed, Web of Science and Science Direct databases. A chapter on a digital book was also consulted. The keywords that were used in the research were in english and in spanish: diet, dietary patterns, colorectal cancer risk and prevention. As inclusión criteria, articles published since 2013 were accepted in english, spanish and catalán language focusing on the relationship between diet or eating patterns and colorectal cancer risk without economic costs and studies of any methodology that could respond the objectives. The articles that have no relation to colon and rectal cancer have been excluded and the ones that have children or adolescents as subjects of the study. The evidence that doesn’t answer the present bibliographic review have also been excluded. 11 articles have been included in the review. Results: The diet has the ability to contribute or inhibit the development of colorectal cancer. The stablishment of specific diets along with performing physical activity can significantly reduce the risk of developing colon and rectal cancer. Following the western food habits generate an increased risk but maintaining a healthy, cautious, antiinflammatory and low-sugar diet is associated with a lower risk. Conclusions: Pimary prevention is key to reduce the number of incident cases in this type of cáncer and considering making dietary choises can significantly reduce the risk. The kind of diet that is associated with a drecreased risk is the one rich in vegetables and fruits, legumes, unrefined foods and por in refineds, meat products, processed, preserved and read meat ​
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