Sustainable Companies, Addressing Climate Change: A Theoretical Review

Climate change is an unavoidable threat with potentially irreversible effects. In the current economic context, globalization significantly increases the unbalanced use of finite, non-renewable sources of energy. This study aims to describe the main characteristics of sustainable companies, based on ideals and values that are committed to the development of the planet, consuming fewer resources than those that they create. Sustainable companies are based on fundamental principles such as the environment (renewable energy resources, sustainable development, preservation of the environment, responsible energy use, minimization of emissions, eco-efficiency, and the circular economy) and mobility (collective public transport, electric vehicles, clean non-motorized mobility systems). In light of this situation, a number of improvement actions have been proposed aimed at sustainable business development (smart environmental sensor networks, energy efficiency, integrated water cycle management, efficient lighting, smart metering, smart irrigation, environmental protection, smart waste management, smart public transport, monitoring of tolls and access to restricted areas, traffic management, fleet management, smart parking, and electric vehicles). Following a theoretical review of the main related studies, it is concluded that there are gaps in information and research related to climate change. At the same time, a further conclusion is that the instruments currently used to mitigate its effects are insufficient and inadequate. Greater indexes of governance and transnational strategy are urgently needed. Finally, there is also a need for sustainable companies that combine business development with the environment and the protection of the planet ​
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