Analysis and occurrence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in airborne particles

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This article presents an overview of the analytical methods for the determination of target endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in airborne particles. Among EDCs, we selected four important groups of compounds (alkylphenols, bisphenol A, phthalates, and natural and synthetic sex hormones) because of their worldwide production, environmental ubiquity and toxicity. Due to their physical and chemical properties (high molecular weight, low/medium polarity and volatility), these EDCs can be present in the atmosphere mainly associated with particulate matter. EDCs linked to small particles (PM10 and PM2.5) can penetrate into the respiratory system and damage human health. We discuss aspects of analytical methodology, such as sampling, extraction, and determination. We review levels found in outdoor and indoor samples. According to the results reported, human exposure to these compounds, especially in indoor environments, should be investigated in more depth, since some compounds, such as dibutyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate, reach levels of μg/m3 ​
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