Breast segmentation and density estimation in breast MRI: A fully automatic framework

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Breast density measurement is an important aspect in breast cancer diagnosis as dense tissue has been related to the risk of breast cancer development. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to automatically compute breast density in breast MRI. The framework is a combination of image processing techniques to segment breast and fibroglandular tissue. Intra- and interpatient signal intensity variability is initially corrected. The breast is segmented by automatically detecting body-breast and air-breast surfaces. Subsequently, fibroglandular tissue is segmented in the breast area using expectation-maximization. A dataset of 50 cases with manual segmentations was used for evaluation. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), total overlap, false negative fraction (FNF), and false positive fraction (FPF) are used to report similarity between automatic and manual segmentations. For breast segmentation, the proposed approach obtained DSC, total overlap, FNF, and FPF values of 0.94, 0.96, 0.04, and 0.07, respectively. For fibroglandular tissue segmentation, we obtained DSC, total overlap, FNF, and FPF values of 0.80, 0.85, 0.15, and 0.22, respectively. The method is relevant for researchers investigating breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer and all the described steps can be also applied in computer aided diagnosis systems ​
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