Integro-difference equations for interacting species and the Neolithic transition

We introduce a set of sequential integro-difference equations to analyze the dynamics of two interacting species. Firstly, we derive the speed of the fronts when a species invades a space previously occupied by a second species, and check its validity by means of numerical random-walk simulations. As an example, we consider the Neolithic transition: the predictions of the model are consistent with the archaeological data for the front speed, provided that the interaction parameter is low enough. Secondly, an equation for the coexistence time between the invasive and the invaded populations is obtained for the first time. It agrees well with the simulations, is consistent with observations of the Neolithic transition, and makes it possible to estimate the value of the interaction parameter between the incoming and the indigenous populations ​
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