Sponge Mass Mortalities in a Warming Mediterranean Sea: Are Cyanobacteria-Harboring Species Worse Off?

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dc.contributor.author Cebrián Pujol, Emma
dc.contributor.author Uriz Lespe, Mª Jesús
dc.contributor.author Garrabou, Joaquim
dc.contributor.author Ballesteros i Segarra, Enric
dc.date.issued 2012-10-10
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10256/7131
dc.description.abstract Mass mortality events are increasing dramatically in all coastal marine environments. Determining the underlying causes of mass mortality events has proven difficult in the past because of the lack of prior quantitative data on populations and environmental variables. Four-year surveys of two shallow-water sponge species, Ircinia fasciculata and Sarcotragus spinosulum, were carried out in the western Mediterranean Sea. These surveys provided evidence of two severe sponge die-offs (total mortality ranging from 80 to 95% of specimens) occurring in the summers of 2008 and 2009. These events primarily affected I. fasciculata, which hosts both phototrophic and heterotrophic microsymbionts, while they did not affect S. spinosulum, which harbors only heterotrophic bacteria. We observed a significant positive correlation between the percentage of injured I. fasciculata specimens and exposure time to elevated temperature conditions in all populations, suggesting a key role of temperature in triggering mortality events. A comparative ultrastructural study of injured and healthy I. fasciculata specimens showed that cyanobacteria disappeared from injured specimens, which suggests that cyanobacterial decay could be involved in I. fasciculata mortality. A laboratory experiment confirmed that the cyanobacteria harbored by I. fasciculata displayed a significant reduction in photosynthetic efficiency in the highest temperature treatment. The sponge disease reported here led to a severe decrease in the abundance of the surveyed populations. It represents one of the most dramatic mass mortality events to date in the Mediterranean Sea
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.isformatof Reproducció digital del document publicat a: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020211
dc.relation.ispartof PLoS ONE, 2011, vol. 6, núm. 6, p. e20211
dc.relation.ispartofseries Articles publicats (D-CCAA)
dc.rights Attribution 3.0 Spain
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/es/
dc.subject Cianobacteris -- Mediterrània, Mar
dc.subject Cyanobacteria -- Mediterranean Sea
dc.subject Esponges -- Mortalitat -- Mediterrània, Mar
dc.subject Spoonges -- Mortality -- Mediterranean Sea
dc.title Sponge Mass Mortalities in a Warming Mediterranean Sea: Are Cyanobacteria-Harboring Species Worse Off?
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.rights.accessRights info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.relation.projectID info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/248252
dc.type.version info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020211


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